CK Airtech has developed various 2-stage wet scrubber designs. The most commonly used is a Venturi Scrubber with a Packed Bed section. It is used to remove particles as well as gaseous contaminants from the gas stream. The principles of operation are as described for the Venturi scrubber and Packed Tower designs. The designs are optimized by using pH control, liquid circuit separation, and mist eliminators to enhance removal efficiencies for specific contaminants.